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PhotoMax 200


(click here for full size panel illustration)

Low Noise Integrating optical detector system for evoked events and calcium detection

A high speed (high sample rate), low noise, dedicated Photometry (Photo Diode) system using fluorescence measurements for acquiring fast time-series images from biological preparation


· Detection (confocal) of localized Ca transients

· Cell detection of Ca transients (global); pH changes; changes in light scattering, birefringence, dichroism, etc.

· Fluorescence changes related to site-directed probes: FRET and LRET

· Absorbance or fluorescence signals reported by potentiometric dyes

· Fluorescence intensity changes reported by few molecules, or single molecule (photon counting)

· Glitch free detection of optical signals associated with flash-induced Photo-release of bioactive molecules (flash photolysis)


· Track and hold to subtract background current

· Up to 300 volt diode bias voltage (for avalanche diode)

· Ultra low noise current to voltage converter (pure integrating and mixed integrating)

· RMS noise meter

· Local and remote gain control

· One pole Bessel filter

· External controllable resets for integrating mode. Allows for input blanking of flash artifact

Two Headstage Types:

· PIN diode current amplifier. Comes standard configured for global light detection (adjustable focusing lens directs all available light in viewing area to photo diode). Also Available 30 or 50 micron pin holed PIN Photo diodes for spot detection

· APD, Avalanche Photo Diode (two stage Peltier cooled)

Each Headstage comes complete with photo diode and Low noise integrating current to voltage converter.


· Low Noise, High sensitivity

· Dedicated Instrument with Photo Diode detector, and Amplifier together in one Headstage

· Low Noise Integrating Current to Voltage Converter

· Cost Effective

PIN Photodiode vs. PMT(Photo Multiplier)
PIN Photodiode vs. APD
Data provided by David Digregorio, University College London

D.A. Digregorio, A. Peskoff, J.L. Vergara (1999) Measurement of action potential-induced presynapic calcium domains at a cultured neuromuscular junction. J neurosci 19(18):7846-7859

A.M. Kim, J.L. Vergara (1998) Supercharging accelerates T-tuule membrane potential changes in voltage clamped frog skeletal muscle fibers. Biophys J 75:2098-2116

Cha, A. and F. Bezanilla, "Structural implications of fluorescence

quenching in the Shaker K+ channel". J. Gen Physiol. 112: 391-408. (1998)

A.L. Escobar, P. Velez, A.M. Kim, F. Cafuentes, M.Fill, J.L. Vergara (1997) Kenectic properties of DM-nitrophen and calcium indicators: rapid transient response to plash photolysis. Eur J Physiol 434:615-631

Configurations & Headstages:

PhotoMax-200/PIN PhotoMax 200 Integrating Photo Diode amplifier with PIN diode Headstage. Headstage is configured for global detection with PIN-08-GL and focusing lens. Includes three-axis translator and C-mount adapter
PhotoMax-200/APD PhotoMax 200 Integrating Photo Diode amplifier with two stage Peltier cooled Avalanche Photo Diode headstage. Includes three-axis translator and C-mount adapter
PhM-PIN Integrating Headstage with PIN diode. (includes PIN-08-GL and focusing lens)
PhM-APD Integrating Headstage with two stage Peltier cooled Avalanche Photo Diode.
PIN-08-GL Mounted HR-008 photo diode configured for global detection

Download the Manual (PDF)

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